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August 18, 2015

Factors Affecting the CPU Performance


Main Factors Affecting the Performance of the CPU

The speed of the Computer always depends on the speed of the CPU (Processor). The Speed of CPU is directly link to the performance of the CPU. This is only true to a certain extent. A CPU with fast speed will not be efficient if it has only a limited data to process. To achieve maximum efficiency, the hardware (especially the hard drive and memory) that are linked to the CPU must supply data as fast as the CPU speed. Failure to do this will result in a lagging computer, regardless how fast the CPU is. There are some factors which affect the CPU performance ...

1. Registers
  • The CPU contains of small memory areas:called registers,which store data and instructions while the CPU processes them.
  • The size of the registers determines the amount of data with which the computer can work at a one time.
  • Today most PC`s have 32-bit registers,mean the CPU can process four bytes data at one time.Register sizes are rapidly growing to 64 bits.
 
2. RAM
  • The amount of RAM in a PC has a direct affect on the system`s speed.
  • The more RAM a PC has.the more program instructions and data can be held in memory,which is faster than storage on disk.
  • If a PC does not have enough memory to run a program,it must move data between RAM and the hard disk frequently.This process called swapping,can greatly slow a PC`s performance. 
 
3. The System Clock
  • The computer`s system clock sets the pace the CPU by using a vibrating quartz crystal.
  • A single "tick" of the clock is the time required to turn a transistor off and back on.This is called a clock cycle.
  • Clock cycles are measured in Hertz(Hz),a measure of cycles per second.If a computer has a clock speed of 300 MHz, then its system clock"ticks" 300 million times every seconds.
  • The faster a PCs clock runs,the more instructions the PC can execute each second.
4. The Bus
  • A bus is a path between the components of a computer.Data and instructions travel along these paths.
  • The data bus width determines how many bits can be transmitted between the CPU and other devices.
  • The address buss runs only between the CPU and RAM, and carries nothing but memory addresses for the CPU to use.
  • Peripheral devices are connected to the CPU by an expansion bus.
 
5. Cache Memory
  • Cache memory is high-speed memory that holds the most recent data and instructions that have been loaded by the CPU.
  • Cache is located directly on the CPU or between the CPU and RAM,making it faster than normal RAM.
  • CPU-resident cache is called Level-1 (L1)cache.External cache is called Level-2 (L2) cache.
  • The amount of cache memory has a tremendous impact on the computer`s speed.
 

 

Secondary Storage Devices



Storage Devices 

 The data stored in RAM will automatically erase when the computer is switched off. In order to store the data or information in permanent fashion we relay in Secondary storage devices( also called as Auxiliary Memory) . This is a non-volatile memory, which is external to a computer. Apart from storing data permanently, the secondary storage devices are capable of storing large volumes of data and instructions. The capacity of this secondary media in storage is far more than primary storage but the speed of accessing is slower than primary storage. Virtually the size of secondary storage is unlimited it is even much cheaper than the main memory. 
The main features of the secondary storage devices are ...
  • Non-Volatile Storage Devices: The Non-Volatile Storage Devices are Non-Volatile in the nature means them never loss their data when the Power goes switched off. So that data which is Stored into the Non-Volatile Storage Devices will never be Loosed When the Power Switched off. 
  • Mass Storage: The Capacity of these Devices is very high means we can Store the Huge Amount of data into the Secondary Storage Devices. We can Store data into the Secondary Storage Devices in the form of Giga Bytes and Tera Bytes.
  • Cost Effective: The Cost of Secondary Storage Devices is very lower in compare to the Main Memory So that they are also called as the more cost effective and they are very small and couldn’t easily damage. And the data can’t be easily loss from these Disks.
  • Re usability: As Memory Contains the Data in the Temporary as well as Permanent Manner. But the Secondary Storage Devices are always Reusable means they can be erased and stored any Time. Means we can add or Remove the Contents from these Disks when we Requires.
There are Many Types of Storage Devices those are based on the Sequential and Random Access Means the data which is Stored into the Secondary Storage devices can be Read either from the First Location which is also known as the Sequential Access or Sequential Manner and the Data can be Read from these Disks and also from any Locations. So if any Disk provides this Utility then this is called as the Direct Access Mechanism. There are Many Storage Devices those are either based on the SASD or Some are DASD.

Various types of Secondary Storage Devices are as Followings
  • Magnetic Tapes: The Magnetic Tapes is the Type of Secondary Storage Device and this Device is used for taking back up of data and this Tape contains some magnetic fields and the Magnetic Tapes are used Accessing the data into the Sequential Form and the Tape Also Contains a Ribbon which is coated on the Single Side of the Tape and also contains a head which reads the data which is Recorded on to the Tape. And when we are reading the information from the disk then we can also read backward information means we can also back the Tape for Reading the Previous information. And For inserting the Tape into the System we also Requires Some Tape Drives Which Contains Tape and which is Responsible for Reading the contents from the Tapes.They can Store huge Amount of data into the Tape Drive , But the Main Limitation of the Tape Drive is that we cant Access the Data from the Disks directly means if we wants to 100th Record from the Tape then we must have to move all the Previous i.e. 99th Records first. And the Tapes are also easily damaged due to the Human Errors.
  • Magnetic Disks : This is also called as the hard disk and this is made from the thin metal platter which is coated on the both sides of the magnetic Disks. And the there are Many Plates or Platters into a single Hard Disk and all the Plates are Made from the Magnetic Materials and all the Disks are Rotate from the 700 to 3600 rpm means Rotation per Minute and the Hard Disk also Contains a head which is used for both Reading and Writing the Data from the Hard Disks.The Plate of Disk is Divided into the Tracks and sectors and the collection of Tracks makes a Cylinder means all the Tracks of the Disk which a Consecutive Areas makes a Cylinder.The Disk is first divided into the Number of Tracks and the Tracks are further divided into the sectors and the Number of Tracks Makes a Cylinder. All the data is Stored into the disk by using Some Sectors and each sectors belongs to a Tracks. The Data is accessed from the Disk by using the heads, all the heads have Some Arm those are used for Reading the Data from the Particular Tracks and sector. When the Disk Rotates very high Speed then the Head also Moves, For Reading the data from the Disk the ARM touches with the Particular Track and read the data from that Location.For Locating a Particular data from the Disk the head Moves Around the Disk very Fastly and data which a user wants to Access must have an Address So that Arm of the head just use that Address Means the Number of Cylinder, Number of Track and Number of Sectors from which user wants to read the data. With the Help of these Read and Write heads we can also Read the Data from the Disk and we can also Stores some data onto the Disk. Some Time Considerations are also used when we are accessing or storing the data onto the hard disk.

    • Seek Time: The Total Time which is Taken to Move on the Desired track is known as the seek Time. And time is always measured by using the Milliseconds. 
    • Latency Time: The time required to Bring the Particular Track to the Desired Location Means the Total Time to bring the Correct the Sector for Reading or for the read and Write head. This is also called as the Average Time. 
    • Data Transfer Time: The Total Time which is required for Reading and Writing the data into the Disk is known as the Data transfer Time.   When we are Taking About the Magnetic Tapes then we can say that the Storage Capacity of the disk is Measure in the Form of Mega Bytes and when are talking about the Hard Disk then the Measurement will be in the Form of Giga Bytes. Means the Capacity of t the Hard Disk will be Read by using the Giga Bytes. The Magnetic Tapes are Sequential Access Device and the Hard Disk is the Direct Access Device means the data of this Disk will be Read from Any Location and the Data can be Read from the Disk by using the Read Write Heads. But hard Disks are Costlier than the Simple Magnetic Tapes. But the capacity of the Hard Disk is very high in compare to the Tapes.
  • Floppy Diskette: Floppy disk is a kind of storage device that can be used to  carried around? The Floppy Disk is also a Secondary Storage device which is used for storing the data in a Permanent Manner. The floppy is made up of Rigid Mylar Plastic and also contains a Magnetic black disk inside the Plastic Cover. The Floppy Disk also Stores all the Data into the Form of Tracks and Sectors and the floppy Disk provides both Reading and Writing the data into the Disk. The Floppy Disk is also called as Reusable Disk means the Floppy Disk Provides us the Facility to Read and Writes the Data into disk as and When Necessary and Also Many Times. We can Read and Write the data from the Disk.The Main Advantage of the Floppy Disk is that the Data can be Stored many Times but the Main Limitation of the floppy Disk is that floppy Disk have a Small capacity and the Floppy Disk also doesn’t have Reliability means the Data Stored into the Disk may not be used for Long Time because the floppy Disk is very Sensitive Thing when we Move the Head of the Disk Again and Again then the floppy disk gets Damaged. So that we can say that Floppy Disk is not a Reliable thing. And I the Other side the Cost of floppy Disk is also high means with the Comparison of the Other Storage Media’s Floppy Disk have some more cost.But the Main Advantage of the Floppy Disk is that floppy Disk is used for Moving the data from one Computer to Another With the Advent of the Floppy Disk we can Store the Data Into the Floppy Disk and after that we can Easily Remove that Disk from the System and Also Put the Disk into the Another System for Taking the Data. But we can not Start or Run the System without the Hard Disk So that floppy Disk is used to Transfer the Files from one System into the. There are Two Types of floppy Disk Available first is the 3.5 and second is the 5.2. But for inserting the Floppy Disk into the System we must have to use the Floppy Disk Drive in the System. For Reading the data from the Disk there are also Some Read and Write heads those are too used. And the Head will touch the Surface of the floppy Disk So that this will lead to the Damage of the Disk So Quickly because when the Head Directly Touch the Surface of the Disk, then this will lead to the Scratches on the Disk and also cause Damage of the Disk. And the Drive can take only one Disk Means we can insert only one Floppy Disk at a Time into the Floppy Drive. The capacity of the floppy Disk is 1.44 MB. So that we can Floppy Disks as rare as Possible. Floppy Disk Contains a Notch which Specify Whether the data will be Read or Write Means to Say if we wants to Protect our data then we can set the Notch of the Floppy Disk as a Read Only. 
 
  • Optical Disks: The Optical Disks are also called as the CD-ROM’s means Compact Disk Read Only Memory which is also used for Storing the data into the Disk and this is called as the Optical Disk because the CD-ROM ‘s are made up of the Golden or Aluminum Material and the data is Stored on the Disk in the Form of the Tracks and Sectors. The Whole Disk is Divided into the Number of Tracks and the Single Track is Divided into the Number of Sectors and the Data is Stored into the Sectors and the Disk is Divided into the Sectors as the first Track Contains the Sectors in the huge Size and the Other Tracks contains the Sectors in a Small Manner. So that as the Disk grows the Disk is Divided into the Small Number of Tracks and the Sectors. CD-ROM Contains the data Which is truly Read able means we cant edit the contents of the CD-ROM Means once Data has been Written into the CD , we can be able to Change the Contents of the Disk and the Data which is Stored on the Disk can be Any Time Read by the user. The CD-ROM provides us the Large Capacity in compare to the Floppy Disks and the CDROM can Store the Data from 650 MB to 800 MB means the data can be Store up to this Space.
    There are Many Disks that cant be Erased once Written So they are also called as the WORM Disks Means the Write Once and Read Many Mane a user can just Write the data only one Time and then after that he can use that Disk Many Times but a user cant Edit or Change those Contents after they are Written into the File. So that these Disks are not Reusable. So that  these Types of Optical Disks are also called as the CD-ROM and also Some Times they are known as the CD-R Means the Read Only Disks because the data which is Written into these Types of Disks is never to be Erased. Now these Days there are also Some CDs Available those are also called as the CD-RW or Read Writable Disks. As the Name Suggest these Disks Provides the feature to the user to Read and Write the Contents from the Disk as they feel Necessary So that the CD-RW are now Most Popular because a user can any Time Remove the Contents from the Disk and also he can store the new Contents into the Disk. The CD-R and CD-RW both have Same Capacity and both these can be used for Transferring the Files from one System to another but the Main difference is that the cost. The CD-RW has Some More Cost in compare to the Simple CD or in Compare to the CD-R. 
  • Winchester Disk: Another term for hard disk drive. The term Winchester comes from an early type of disk drive developed by IBM that had 30MB of fixed storage and 30MB of removable storage; so its inventors called it a Winchester in honor of its 30/30 rifle. Although modern disk drives are faster and hold more data, the basic technology is the same, so Winchester has become synonymous with hard.
 
  • Magnetic Drum: A direct-access, or random-access, storage device. A magnetic drum, also referred to as drum, is a metal cylinder coated with magnetic iron-oxide material on which data and programs can be stored. Magnetic drums were once used as a primary storage device but have since been implemented as auxiliary storage devices.The tracks on a magnetic drum are assigned to channels located around the circumference of the drum, forming adjacent circular bands that wind around the drum. A single drum can have up to 200 tracks. As the drum rotates at a speed of up to 3,000 rpm, the device's read/write heads deposit magnetized spots on the drum during the write operation and sense these spots during a read operation. This action is similar to that of a magnetic tape or disk drive. Unlike some disk packs, the magnetic drum cannot be physically removed. The drum is permanently mounted in the device. Magnetic drums are able to retrieve data at a quicker rate than tape or disk devices but are not able to store as much data as either of them. 
 

Output Devices Contd.

Output Devices

Hard Copy Devices:


In these devices output is on paper and can be read immediately or stored and read later.  This is a relatively stable and permanent form of output.
 Eg: printers ..
Printers are classified in to two types 

Impact Printer

An impact printer makes contact with the paper. It usually forms the print image by pressing an inked ribbon against the paper using a hammer or pins. Following are some examples of impact printers.

Non Impact Printers 

Non-impact printers do not use a striking device to produce characters on the paper; and because these printers do not hammer against the paper they are much quieter. Following are some non-impacted printers. 

Types of Impact Printers 

Dot Matrix Printer 

The dot-matrix printer uses print heads containing from 9 to 24 pins. These pins produce patterns of dots on the paper to form the individual characters. The 24 pin dot-matrix printer produces more dots that a 9 pin dot-matrix printer, which results in much better quality and clearer characters. The general rule is: the more pins, the clearer the letters on the paper. The pins strike the ribbon individually as the print mechanism moves across the entire print line in both directions, i-e, from left to right, then right to left, and so on. The user can produce a color output with a dot-matrix printer (the user will change the black ribbon with a ribbon that has color stripes). Dot-matrix printers are inexpensive and typically print at speeds of 100-600 characters per second.

Daisy-wheel printers

In order to get the quality of type found on typewriters, a daisy-wheel impact printer can be used. It is called daisy-wheel printer because the print mechanism looks like a daisy; at the end of each “Petal” is a fully formed character which produces solid-line print. A hammer strikes a “petal” containing a character against the ribbon, and the character prints on the paper. Its speed is slow typically 25-55 characters per second.

Line printers

In business where enormous amount of material are printed, the character-at-a-time printers are too slow; therefore, these users need line-at-a-time printers. Line printers, or line-at-a-time printers, use special mechanism that can print a whole line at once; they can typically print the range of 1,200 to 6,000 lines per minute. Drum, chain, and band printers are line-at-a-time printers.

Drum printer

A drum printer consists of a solid, cylindrical drum that has raised characters in bands on its surface. The number of print positions across the drum equals the number available on the page. This number typically ranges from 80-132 print positions. The drum rotates at a rapid speed. For each possible print position there is a print hammer located behind the paper. These hammers strike the paper, along the ink ribbon, against the proper character on the drum as it passes. One revolution of the drum is required to print each line. This means that all characters on the line are not printed at exactly the same time, but the time required to print the entire line is fast enough to call them line printers. Typical speeds of drum printers are in the range of 300 to 2000 lines per minute.

Chain printers

A chain printer uses a chain of print characters wrapped around two pulleys. Like the drum printer, there is one hammer for each print position. Circuitry inside the printer detects when the correct character appears at the desired print location on the page. The hammer then strikes the page, pressing the paper against a ribbon and the character located at the desired print position. An impression of the character is left on the page. The chain keeps rotating until all the required print positions on the line have filled. Then the page moves up to print the next line. Speeds of chain printers range from 400 to 2500 characters per minute.

Band printers

A band printer operates similar to chain printer except it uses a band instead of a chain and has fewer hammers. Band printer has a steel band divided into five sections of 48 characters each. The hammers on a band printer are mounted on a cartridge that moves across the paper to the appropriate positions. Characters are rotated into place and struck by the hammers. Font styles can easily be changed by replacing a band or chain.

 

 

Types of Non-impact printers

Ink-jet printers

Ink-jet printers work in the same fashion as dot-matrix printers in the form images or characters with little dots. However, the dots are formed by tiny droplets of ink. Ink-jet printers form characters on paper by spraying ink from tiny nozzles through an electrical field that arranges the charged ink particles into characters at the rate of approximately 250 characters per second. The ink is absorbed into the paper and dries instantly. Various colors of ink can also be used.

One or more nozzles in the print head emit a steady stream of ink drops. Droplets of ink are electrically charged after leaving the nozzle. The droplets are then guided to the paper by electrically charged deflecting plates [one plate has positive charge (upper plate) and the other has negative charge (lover plate)]. A nozzle for black ink may be all that’s needed to print text, but full-color printing is also possible with the addition of needed to print text, but full-color printing is also possible with the addition three extra nozzles for the cyan, magenta, and yellow primary colors. If a droplet isn’t needed for the character or image being formed, it is recycled back to its input nozzle.



Several manufacturers produce color ink-jet printer. Some of these printers come with all their color inks in a cartridge; if you want to replace on color, you must replace all the colors. Other color ink-jet printers allow you to replace ink individually. These printers are a better choice if user uses one color more than other colors. These printers produce less noise and print in better quality with greater speed.



Laser printers

A laser printer works like a photocopy machine. Laser printers produce images on paper by directing a laser beam at a mirror which bounces the beam onto a drum. The drum has a special coating on it to which toner (an ink powder) sticks. Using patterns of small dots, a laser beam conveys information from the computer to a positively charged drum to become neutralized. From all those areas of drum which become neutralized, the toner detaches. As the paper rolls by the drum, the toner is transferred to the paper printing the letters or other graphics on the paper. A hot roller bonds the toner to the paper.


Laser printers use buffers that store an entire page at a time. When a whole page is loaded, it will be printed. The speed of laser printers is high and they print quietly without producing much noise. Many home-use laser printers can print eight pages per minute, but faster and print approximately 21,000 lines per minute, or 437 pages per minute if each page contains 48 lines. When high speed laser printers were introduced they were expensive. Developments in the last few years have provided relatively low-cost laser printers for use in small businesses.


Advantages of Laser Printer

  • The main advantage of Laser printer is its speed & efficiency at which it prints high-quality quality graphics & text.
  • Laser printers produce high-quality output as compared to other printers.
  • Laser printers are quite and does not produce disturbing sounds.
  • They are also capable to produce color prints.

Disadvantages of Laser Printer

  • The main disadvantage of Laser printer is its cost, they are relatively costly as compared to other printers.
  • The maintenance, repair & servicing charges are also high of these printers.
  • Laser printers emit small amount of ozone and are hazardous to health and the atmosphere.